Ancam Boikot Sawit, Uni Eropa Kembali ke Kubangan Masa Lalu?

Rencana boikot sawit, Uni Eropa kembali ke kubangan kolonialis masa lalu yang eksploitatif, diskriminatif dan benar sendiri

 

Resolusi minyak sawit yang dikeluarkan Parlemen Eropa bulan April 2017 yang lalu, mengancam minyak sawit untuk tujuan ekspor ke Eropa. Serangan Eropa terhadap minyak sawit memang bukan hal yang baru. Sejak tahun 1980 ketika Malaysia sebagai produsen terbesar dunia serangan terhadap minyak sawit sudah bertubi-tubi. Awalnya isu yang digunakan untuk memojokkan sawit adalah isu kesehatan yang menuduh minyak sawit mengandung kolesterol. Karena tidak terbukti tuduhan tersebut, kemudian isu kampanye negatif bergeser ke isu lingkungan yang kebetulan sedang trending topic secara internasional khususnya sejak tahun 2000. Serangan makin meluas ke sawit Indonesia dimulai ketika Indonesia berhasil menjadi produsen minyak sawit terbesar dunia sejak tahun 2006. Sebagai penghasil 90 persen minyak sawit dunia kini Indonesia dan Malaysia menjadi sasaran kampanye negatif sawit dunia.

Masyarakat Eropa merupakan salah satu pasar minyak nabati dunia termasuk minyak sawit. Kebutuhan minyak nabati Eropa mencapai 25 juta ton setiap tahunnya. Sementara produksi minyak nabati Eropa (minyak rapeseed, bunga matahari) hanya mampu memasok sekitar 25 persen dari kebutuhan. Sisanya yakni 75 persen atau 19 juta ton dipenuhi dari impor. Dari 19 juta ton impor minyak nabati tersebut, terdapat sekitar 7 juta ton minyak sawit.

Dalam konsumsi minyak nabati Eropa pangsa minyak sawit memang melejit cepat naik empat kali lipat yakni dari hanya 8 persen menjadi 30 persen dalam kurun waktu tahun 1980-2016, melampaui pertumbuhan minyak rapeseed (minyak utama Eropa) yang hanya naik dua kali lipat dari 20 persen menjadi 44 persen dalam periode yang sama. Sementara minyak kedelai justru turun drastis dari 55 persen menjadi hanya 9 persen.

Melejitnya pangsa sawit dalam konsumsi Eropa yang demikian, dikhawatirkan akan menggeser minyak rapeseed dan minyak bunga matahari di Eropa. Harga minyak sawit yang lebih murah dibandingkan dengan minyak nabati Eropa, memang dominasi sawit di Eropa tinggal menunggu waktu. Apalagi Eropa saat ini sedang merencanakan pengurangan subsidi untuk pertanian Eropa termasuk untuk tanaman rapeseed dan bunga matahari maka minyak Eropa akan makin tidak kompetetif melawan sawit.

Untuk melindungi minyak nabati Eropa dari ancaman sawit, kebijakan tarif dan non tarif impor pun diterapkan. Uni Eropa yang selama ini anti proteksi perdagangan kini menjilat ludahnya sendiri dan kembali menerapkan proteksi. Integritas dan konsistensi Uni Eropa dipertanyakan. Tidak hanya protektif tetapi juga diskriminatif dengan penuh kebohongan. Pertama, Rencana boikot impor karena tuduhan deforestasi hanya berlaku bagi minyak sawit sedangkan untuk minyak kedelai tidak berlaku. Padahal studi European Commission sendiri mengungkap bahwa dalam periode 1990-2008, deforestasi dunia mencapai sekitar 240 juta hektar yakni 64 persen terjadi di Amerika Selatan dan Afrika khususnya untuk peternakan sapi, kebun kedelai dan jagung. Sedangkan deforestasi di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Indonesia dan Malaysia) hanya 19 persen bahkan khusus untuk sawit dunia hanya 2.3 persen.

Kedua, kebakaran hutan/lahan terluas dunia terjadi di Indonesia dan disebabkan kebun sawit. Selain tuduhan tersebut tidak masuk akal, terbukti juga penuh kebohongan. Selama tahun 2011-2016 laporan Badan Eropa dan USA melaporkan bahwa luas kebakaran hutan/lahan di Eropa rata-rata lebih dari 500 ribu hektar per tahun. Kebakaran hutan/lahan di Amerika Serikat sebagai produsen minyak kedelai bahkan lebih luas lagi yakni 2.2 juta hektar per tahun. Sementara kebakaran hutan/lahan di Indonesia hanya sekitar 64 ribu hektar pertahun.

Ketiga, Indonesia sebagai produsen sawit menghasilkan emisi katbon tertinggi dunia. Hal ini juga penuh kebohongan. Sebab Menurut laporan International Energy Agency (2016) emisi karbon USA (produsen minyak kedelai) adalah 5.2 Giga ton per tahun dan Emisi karbon Uni Eropa(produsen minyak rapeseed dan minyak bunga matahari) sebesar 3.1 Giga ton per tahun. Sementara Indonesia hanya 0.4 Giga ton pertahun. Dengan kata lain jika alasan boikot didasarkan pada dampak lingkungan, seharusnya diberlakukan juga pada minyak kedelai, minyak bunga matahari dan minyak rapeseed, yang dampak lingkunganya lebih buruk dibandingkan minyak sawit. Apakah Uni Eropa kembali lagi ke kubangan masa lalunya yakni masa kolonialis, yang hanya mau benar sendiri, eksploitatif, diskriminatif dan merasa superior ?

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